• Original Research Article

    Rice Plant Growth Characteristics According to Different Seed Germination Length and Damage

    볍씨 최아 및 최아 손상정도에 따른 초기생육변화 분석

    Myoung-Goo Choi, Jae-Hyeok Jeong, Hyen-Seok Lee, Seo-Yeong Yang, Chung-gun Lee and Woon-Ha Hwang

    최명구 ・ 정재혁 ・ 이현석 ・ 양서영 ・ 이충근 ・ 황운하

    e checked the emergence rate and early growth characteristics of young rice plants according to the germination length and seed damage ratio ... + READ MORE
    e checked the emergence rate and early growth characteristics of young rice plants according to the germination length and seed damage ratio in direct seeding. The emergence rate was reduced according to the longer germination length and higher seed damage ratio. The emergence rate was further reduced under high-temperature conditions. The leaf number did not show a significant difference according to germination length and seed damage ratio. However, shoot and root dry weights were reduced according to the germination length and seed damage ratio. The root dry weight was highly correlated with the shoot dry weight. Based on these results, we concluded that a longer germination length and seed damage could induce the loss of nutrients and affect poor root growth, consequently inducing poor emergence and growth in the early growth stage of rice seeds. Therefore, in rice direct seeding, seed conditions of less than 1 mm of germination length should be checked for a sufficiently high standing rate and adequate growth characteristics after seeding. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Heading Response of Rice Varieties under Temperature and Day-Length Conditions of Low-Temperature Regions in North Korea

    북한 저온 지역의 기온과 일장 조건에서 벼 품종의 출수 반응

    Woonho Yang, Shingu Kang, Jong-Seo Choi, Dae-Woo Lee, Seuk-ki Lee and Mi-Jin Chae

    양운호 ・ 강신구 ・ 최종서 ・ 이대우 ・ 이석기 ・ 채미진

    The heading response of rice varieties, originated from South Korea, North Korea, and northern China, was examined under the temperature and day-length ... + READ MORE
    The heading response of rice varieties, originated from South Korea, North Korea, and northern China, was examined under the temperature and day-length conditions of 10 low-temperature regions in North Korea. When 30-day-old broadcast tray-raised seedlings (BS) were used, only one or a few varieties reached the heading stage within the safe marginal heading date (SMHD) under the Hamhung, Pyonggang, Huichon, and Kanggye conditions. In the Yangdok and Sinpo environments, no varieties reached heading until SMHD. The South Korean varieties that reached the heading stage between SMHD and late marginal heading date (LMHD) were Jinbuol, Baegilmi, Joun, Jopum, Jinok, Jopyeong, Sanhomi, and Odae for the Hamhung, Pyonggang, Huichon, and Kanggye; Joun for Sinpo; and none for Yangdok, Kimchaek, Sonbong, and Chunggang environments. The number of days to heading (DTH) was positively correlated among all 10 regions. Reduced DTH in the 30-day-old pot tray-raised seedlings (PS), compared to BS, was not consistent with varieties and regions. Reduced DTH in PS, compared to BS, was the largest in Jinok and Sonbong9 among the South and North Korean varieties, respectively, whereas it was small in the northern Chinese varieties. The South Korean varieties that headed until SMHD in PS were Jinok for the Hamhung, Pyonggang, Yangdok, Sinpo, and Kanggye environments; and Jinbuol, Jopum, and Jinok for the Huichon condition. In the Kimchaek and Chunggang conditions, Jinok reached the heading stage within LMHD. With the use of PS for some responsive varieties such as Jinok, varietal adaptability could be improved to the conditions of low-temperature regions in North Korea. None of the PS or BS among the tested varieties reached the heading stage until LMHD for the Chongjin and Sonbong conditions. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effect of Irrigation Amounts on Growth and Yield of Rice in Desert Climates

    인공사막환경에서 벼 재배시 관개량에 따른 생육 및 수량 특성 변화

    Ki-Youl Jung, Sang-Hun Lee, Jae-Hyeok Jeong, Hyen-Chung Chun, Seung-ka Oh and Seung-ho Jeon

    정기열 ・ 이상훈 ・ 정재혁 ・ 전현정 ・ 오승가 ・ 전승호

    There is a growing interest in rice cultivation on farms with irrigation facilities in desert climates. We investigated the growth characteristics and ... + READ MORE
    There is a growing interest in rice cultivation on farms with irrigation facilities in desert climates. We investigated the growth characteristics and yields of two rice cultivars (FL478 and Asemi) irrigated at field capacities (FCs) of 80%, 100%, and 120% in a lysimeter with coarse sandy soils. The results showed that at the heading stage, the FC 100% treatment had the highest plant height and number of tillers between the two cultivars. At the harvest period, the culm and panicle lengths of both cultivars at FC 100% were similar to those of the control. In contrast, the number of panicles, grain number per panicle, and percentage of ripened grains were the highest in the control. Moreover, FL478 and Asemi had the highest grain yields of 1.40 and 2.20 kg·pot-1 in the control, respectively. For both cultivars, the grain yields of the FC 100% and FC 120% treatments were approximately 70% of the control. In comparison, FL478 and Asemi had the highest water productivity of 0.45 and 0.63 kg·m3-1 for the FC 80% treatment, followed by the FC 100% treatment (0.42 and 0.59 kg·m3-1, respectively), which was nearly 14.3% and 20.3% higher than that of the control. Therefore, we found that irrigation at FC 100% is anticipated to be effective in managing surface drip irrigation for rice cultivation in desert climates in arid environments, while maintaining rice yields. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Studies on Adaptability by Rice Heading Ecology Type in the Central Northern Mid-Mountainous Cultivation Zone of Chungbuk Region

    충북지역 중북부 중산간지 벼 출수생태형별 적응성 검토

    Chae Young Lee, Ye Seul Choi, Joung Kwan Lee, Ik Jei Kim, Shin Gu Kang, Sun Hee Woo and Young Ho Kim

    이채영 ・ 최예슬 ・ 이정관 ・ 김익제 ・ 강신구 ・ 우선희 ・ 김영호

    In recent years, air temperature has been increasing rapidly compared to the 1980s because of global warming. This increase in temperature reduces ... + READ MORE
    In recent years, air temperature has been increasing rapidly compared to the 1980s because of global warming. This increase in temperature reduces the yield and quality of rice; therefore, measures are needed to prevent such effects and ensure food security. The early maturing type (EMT) of rice is mainly cultivated in the central northern mid-mountainous area (CNMA). This study was conducted to shift the transplanting date of EMT and to examine the adaptability of the mid-maturing type (MMT) or mid-late maturing type (MLMT) in the Jecheon region of the CNMA to address global warming. The air temperature increased by 0.7–0.9°C in the 2010s, compared to that in the 1980s, and was similar to other decades during the ripening period. Over the past 35 years, considering rice quality, the heading date of the Odae variety has arrived sooner by approximately 10 days, the ripened grain ratio has increased by more than 10%, and the thousand grain weight; however, the mean temperature at 40 days after heading has increased by more than 2°C. The late marginal heading date in the Jecheon region was determined as August 11 based on the accumulated temperature of 880°C and August 15 based on 840°C for 40 days after heading. According to different transplanting dates, milled rice yield per 10 a was the highest at 567 kg with June 10 in EMT, 595 kg with June 10 in MMT, and 572 kg with May 30 in MLMT. Considering the late marginal heading date, rice yield, and quality, the optimum transplanting date was June 15 in EMT, June 5 in MMT, and May 30 in MLMT in the Jecheon region of CNMA. Owing to global warming, MMT and MLMT are expected to be reliably cultivated in the CNMA. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Review Aticle

    Evolution and Breeding of Members of Pooideae Subfamily: Focusing on Upland Cereal Crops

    포아풀아과(Pooideae subfamily)의 진화와 육종: 맥류 중심의 고찰

    Yeon Jun Sung, Hee Won Oh, Yuna Kang, and Chang soo Kim

    성연준 ・ 오희원 ・ 강유나 ・ 김창수

    Grasses (Poaceae) belong to the biggest plant family among angiosperms and it cover around 20% of the earth’s surface. The members ... + READ MORE
    Grasses (Poaceae) belong to the biggest plant family among angiosperms and it cover around 20% of the earth’s surface. The members of this family are mostly utilized as food resources by humans and animals but they are also valuable in terms of evolution and ecology. The member of the subfamily Pooideae represents, temperate grasses, and includes a number of economically important crops and belongs to the clade BOP (including the subfamilies Bambooideae, Oryzeae, and Pooideae). This subfamily is the largest among all grass families. The special features of this subfamily are cold acclimation and vernalization. The members of Pooideae subfamily with the aforementioned special features are thought to have evolved in the Cenozoic era when the temperature on earth started to cool down, which triggered the diversification of this subfamily through adaptation to cold weather. The agricultural origin of wheat, barley, oat, and rye is attributed to fertile crescent and thereafter they were domesticated through Neolithic evolution. The history of domestication of each Pooideae crop is distinct and is based on their purpose. Recently, breeding of these crops is performed differently due to the development of new technologies such as genomics and genome editing. This review article summarizes the evolutionary history of the members of the subfamily Pooideae and use of pre-existing information for future breeding efforts. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes of Tassel and Silks in Gwangpyeongok and Dacheongok

    광평옥과 다청옥의 수이삭과 수염에서 안토시아닌 생합성 유전자 발현 분석

    Young Sam Go, Hwan Hee Bae, Yu Chan Choi, Jae Han Son, Jun Young Ha Seong Hyu Shin and Tae Wook Jung

    고영삼 ・ 배환희 ・ 최유찬 ・ 손재한 ・ 하준영 ・ 신성휴 ・ 정태욱

    Anthocyanins are known to be involved in various functions such as antioxidant and antibacterial activities in plants. Although studies on anthocyanins in ... + READ MORE
    Anthocyanins are known to be involved in various functions such as antioxidant and antibacterial activities in plants. Although studies on anthocyanins in corn have been conducted recently, basic research related to anthocyanin biosynthesis is insufficient. In this study, we examined the molecular biological and physicochemical properties related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in the tassel and silks of Gwangpyeongok and Dacheongok cultivars. Anthocyanins were not synthesized in either the tassel or silks in Gwangpyeongok, whereas were synthesized in both in Dacheongok. The total anthocyanin content was approximately 30 times higher in the tassel and silks of Dacheongok than in those of Gwangpyeongok. In addition, C-3-G was measured only in the tassel of Dacheongok, and C-3-G, Pg-3-G, and M-3-G were 45.2 times, 27.3 times, and 37.6 times higher, respectively, in the silks of Dacheongok than of Gwangpyeongok. Expression of F3'H, DFR, and GST genes decreased in the tassel, and that of F3'H and DFR genes decreased in the silks of Gwangpyeongok. It was further confirmed that transcription factor P1 and R1 regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the tassel and silks, respectively, in Gwangpyeongok. Linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased by 6.6% and 10.9%, and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased by 8.5% and 8.5%, in the tassel and silks, respectively, of Gwangpyeongok compared to those of Dacheongok. Palmitic acid (C16:0) increased by 4.1% and oleic acid (C18:1) decreased by 2.1% in the silks of Gwangpyeongok compared to that in Dacheongok. In addition, the total fatty acid content in the tassel and silks increased by 10.3% and 30.4%, respectively, in Gwangpyeongok compared to that in Dacheongok. However, no significant results were observed in the analysis of phytosterol components. These results may be utilized as useful resources for the development of functional corn containing a large amount of anthocyanins. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Agricultural and Quality Characteristics in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) Population in Perilla (Perilla frutescens)

    들깨 대실/잎들깨1호 재조합 자식계통(RILs)의 농업적 특성 및 품질 분석

    Jae Eun Park, Myoung Hee Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sungup Kim, Eunyoung Oh, Tae Joung Ha, Kwang-Soo Cho, Chan Sik Jung and Jung In Kim

    박재은, 이명희, 오기원, 김성업, 오은영, 하태정, 조광수, 정찬식, 김정인

    This study was conducted to obtain basal information for the development of perilla cultivars with improved quality. The F7 population of ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to obtain basal information for the development of perilla cultivars with improved quality. The F7 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the parents of Daesil for seeds and Ipdeulkkae1 for vegetables was used as the material. We evaluated several agricultural characteristics and seed quality. Variations were observed in most of the measurements; for example, stem length (ranging from 66.0 to 150.0 cm), number of branches (from 5 to 23), flower cluster length (ranging from 5.1 to 10.5 cm), number of flower clusters (from 17 to 131), a-linolenic acid content (from 54.2 to 64.1%), and functional compound content (rosmarinic acid 869.5~3,508.1 μg/g; luteolin 47.4~864.3 μg/g; apigenin 57.1~296.7 μg/g) all showed variation. Significant correlations between stem length and the number of branches (0.561) and number of branches versus number of flower clusters (0.638) were detected in the RIL F7 population. Most agricultural characteristics and seed qualities showed a normal distribution with large variation, and transgressive segregation was observed in many descendants with characteristics to those of their parents. Daesil/Ipdeulkkae1 RIL F7 populations could be useful for future QTL analysis as well as for intermediate breeding lines for high-quality perilla cultivars. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Evaluation of Rapeseed Seedling Quality According to Varieties and Seedling Ages for Spring Cultivation Transplanting

    유채 봄 재배 기계이식을 위한 품종별 육묘 일수에 따른 묘소질 평가

    Da-Hee An, Young-Lok Cha, Kwang-Soo Kim, Woon-Chul Shin and Ji-Eun Lee

    안다희 ・ 차영록 ・ 김광수 ・ 신운철 ・ 이지은

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally sown in late autumn and harvested in early summer in Korea, however, spring cultivation has also ... + READ MORE
    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally sown in late autumn and harvested in early summer in Korea, however, spring cultivation has also been attempted in some areas because frequent climate changes induce reducing productivity. Therefore, there is a need for a transplanting technology that is relatively easy to control of cropping season according to changes in cultivation conditions. In this study, to find out the optimal characteristics of seedlings for machine transplanting of spring cultivation, seedling morphological characteristics were investigated according to the seedling age of three varieties for 2020 and 2021. The hypocotyl length was less than 2 cm in both years and the 40-day-old seedling was the shortest among all seedling ages. The number and size of leaf were increased with longer seedling age in both years. To evaluate seedling quality, total seedling length, seedling weight, and impact resistance were measured before transplanting. Total seedling length was the longest in 40-day-old seedlings and the shortest in 25-day-old seedlings in both years. In the case of seedling weight, no significant differences were observed depending on the seedling age and the impact resistance increased with increasing seedling age. Finally, ‘Jungmo7001’, ‘Naehan’, and ‘Tamla’ showed a high transplanting rate in seedlings grown for more than 30 days, 35 days, and 40 days, respectively, in the field using a general transplanter. These results suggest that the proper seedling age for transplanting is limited depending on the rapeseed varieties. The suitable seedling cultivation method can be selected for different cultivation environments. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Correlation of Zoysia Grass (Zoysia. spp) Survival, Reproduction, and Floret Appearance Rates to Aid in Development of New Hybrid Zoysia Grass Cultivars

    잔디 교잡 품종 개발을 위한 잔디 생존률, 재생산률 및 꽃대 출현률과의 상관관계

    Gyung Deok Han, Ji Hyeon Jung2 and Yong Suk Chung

    한경덕 ・ 정지현 ・ 정용석

    This study was conducted to provide primary data through analysis of zoysia grass genetic resources to develop grass cultivars with beneficial novel ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to provide primary data through analysis of zoysia grass genetic resources to develop grass cultivars with beneficial novel properties. Zoysia grass (Zoysia. spp) is native to Korea, and is mainly propagated through stolons. However, since seed coat treatment technology was developed, the breeding of sexually reproductive grass variants has become possible, necessitating characterization of the floret appearance rate in the secured zoysia grass genetic resource before developing sexually reproductive cultivars. In this experiment, 549 grass lines were examined, revealing that florets appear in only 43 lines (7.81%). Survival rates after transplantation, and stolon generation rates displayed a significant positive correlation (Rho = 0.44). Survival rates after transfer, and rates of stolon production displayed very low correlations with floret appearance (Rho = -0.11 and Rho = -0.06). No significant results were obtained in 43 lines that displayed >20% floret appearance. To breed sexually reproductive grass variants, it is thus necessary to secure more genetic resources, considering the low rate of floret appearance. Finding traits that predict floret appearance at an early stage is also required. - COLLAPSE
    September 2021