• Original Research Article

    Feed Value of the Different Plant Parts of Main Forage Rice Varieties

    사료용 벼 주요 품종의 수확부위 별 사료가치

    Eok-Keun Ahn, Yong-Jae Won, Kyung-Ho Kang, Hyang-Mi Park, Kuk-Hyun Jung, Ung-Jo Hyun, and Yoon-Sung Lee

    안억근, 원용재, 강경호, 박향미, 정국현, 현웅조, 이윤승

    In order to manufacture feed suitable for consumer use and provide feed value information, we analyzed the feed components of the four … + READ MORE
    In order to manufacture feed suitable for consumer use and provide feed value information, we analyzed the feed components of the four main forage rice varieties by plant parts harvested 30 days after heading. The contents of the six feed ingredients were significantly different (p<0.05) among harvested parts. In the panicle, the crude protein (CP) (6.97%) and lignin (3.11%) were the highest, while the crude ash (CA) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were significantly lower, resulting in a total digestible nutrient (TDN) content of 77.29%, which is higher than that of the stem (64.82%) and leaf blade and sheath (LBS) (63.57%) (p<0.05). In contrast, the content of crude fat (CF) did not differ significantly among parts (p<0.05). In panicles from ‘Jonong’, ‘Nokyang’ and ‘Yeongwoo’, the TDN content of each cultivar was 78.48-79.07%, with no significant difference among the varieties. In ‘Mogwoo’ (Mw), the CP content was 8.70%, which was much higher than that of other varieties (p<0.05). In particular, the Mw TDN content was slightly lower in the panicle (72.95%) but higher in the stem (75.37%) and LBS (66.49%) than in the other varieties. The CA, NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin contents were also very low compared to other varieties; therefore, the feed value of the stem and LBS was excellent. In addition, the total dry matter weight (DMW) was 123 g per hill, which was much higher than 82-105 g per hill for other varieties. The distribution of DMW by part was LBS (56.9 g), stem (36.8 g), and panicle (29.3 g), and because the parts, except the panicles, were much higher than the 43-57% of other varieties (grain straw ratio: 76%), rice straw is advantageous in terms of quantity and feed value when used as forage on farms. The relative feed value (RFV) of the four cultivars ranged from 86.79-403.74 across all parts, and hay of grade 3 or higher with an RFV of 100 or more increased with delayed heading in both stems and LBS. This is due to the accumulation of starch into grains during ripening, which supports the observation that the RFV of the early flowering ‘Jonong’ and ‘Nokyang’ panicles increased. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Agronomic and End-use Quality Analysis of ‘AromaT’, a Black Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Variety with Floury Endosperm

    분질배유를 지니는 흑미, ‘아로마티’의 주요 농업형질 및 가공적성 평가

    Su Kyung Ha, Young-Jun Mo, Jong-Min Jeong, Hyun-Sook Lee, Jinhee Kim, Woo-Duck Seo, and Ji-Ung Jeong

    하수경, 모영준, 정종민, 이현숙, 김진희, 서우덕, 정지웅

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in Wnju, Jeonbuk, South Korea. However, rice consumption has dramatically decreased as eating … + READ MORE
    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in Wnju, Jeonbuk, South Korea. However, rice consumption has dramatically decreased as eating habits have diversified owing to rapid economic growth. Recently, floury endosperm rice varieties have been developed to invigorate the rice processing industry, because dry-milled rice flour is economically and environmentally suitable for massive rice flour distribution. The National Institute of Crop Science has developed ‘AromaT’, an early-maturing black rice with floury-endosperm, suitable for tea and dry milling. ‘AromaT’ was derived from a cross between ‘Suweon542’ as the floury endosperm source and ‘Heugjinju’ as the black and aromatic source. In this study, ‘AromaT’ and its parents, ‘Suweon542’ and ‘Heugjinju’, were analyzed for agronomic traits, anthocyanin content, and their major physicochemical properties by different planting date. The field experiment was conducted in Wanju, Jeollabuk-do Province, South Korea, in 2019. The transplanting dates were May 30 (ordinary season), June 25 (double-cropping season), and July 10 (late season). The yield performance of brown rice ‘AromaT’ was 330 kg/10 a in the double-cropping cultivation method and was the highest among the transplanting dates. The floury endosperm of ‘AromaT’ was derived from ‘Suweon542’ containing ‘flo7’, located on chromosome 5 and known to control floury endosperm. With the late planting date, the anthocyanin content of ‘AromaT’ was 570.5 mg/100 g, much higher than that of ‘Heugjinju’ (376.3 mg/100 mg). The brown rice of ‘AromaT’ also exhibited the pop-corn-flavoring 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, exclusively detected in aroma rice varieties. The average particle sizes of ‘AromaT’ and ‘Suweon542’ were 67.12 µm and 70.9 µm, respectively, lower than that of ‘Heugjinju’ (95.5 µm) with a black transparent endosperm. The average damaged starch content of ‘AromaT’ was 8.1%, lower than that of ‘Heugjinju’ (10.05%) and Suweon542 (9.5%). As a result, ‘AromaT’ with high anthocyanin content, fine particle size, and low damaged starch content is expected to provide a new rice material in various processing fields. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Optimal Transplanting Date for Rice Flour Cultivars to Avoid Occurrence of Pre-harvest Sprouting in Gangwon Province

    강원지역 쌀가루용 벼의 이앙시기가 수발아 발생에 미치는 영향

    Ji-Woo Lee, Youn-Sang Cho, Yong-Bok Kim, Jung-Su Jung, and Young-Pyeong Jeong

    이지우, 조윤상, 김용복, 정정수, 정영평

    Rice is one of the three major grains globally, and has been used as a staple food in Asian countries for a … + READ MORE
    Rice is one of the three major grains globally, and has been used as a staple food in Asian countries for a long time. In recent years, with the increase in the use of processed rice, the development and distribution of rice flour varieties have become a research focus. However, rice flour varieties are susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). In this study, the optimal transplanting date for rice flour varieties for maximum yield production with PHS avoidance was examined. Four rice flour varieties with different maturity types (early maturing type, Garumi2 and medium-late maturing type, Seolgaeng, Hangaru, and Singil) were selected. The field experiment was conducted in Chuncheon (Central Plain area) and Cheorwon (Northern Plain area), Gangwon Province, Republic of Korea, from 2017 to 2019. The transplanting dates used were May 10, May 20, May 30, June 10, and June 20 in Chuncheon and April 30, May 10, May 20, May 30, and June 10 in Cheorwon. In Chuncheon, late transplantation decreased PHS in Garumi2. In Cheorwon, PHS in Garumi2 decreased with transplantation dates after May 20. The PHS decreased in Seolgaeng, Hangaru, and Singil with late transplantation in Chuncheon and Cheorwon. The optimal transplanting date for maximum yield production while avoiding PHS for Garumi2 was estimated to be June 10 in Chuncheon and May 25 in Cheorwon; for Seolgaeng, the optimal transplanting dates were May 20 in Chuncheon and May 15 in Cheorwon; for Hangaru, it was estimated to be May 30 in Chuncheon and May 15 in Cheorwon; and for Singil, the optimal dates were May 25 in Chuncheon and May 15 in Cheorwon. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Development of Smart Digital Agriculture Technology for Food Crop Production in Korea-The Path Forward Based on Expert Feedback

    식량작물 생산에 대한 스마트디지털 농업기술의 발전 방향 - 전문가 설문조사 연구

    Ki Eun Song, Jae Gyeong Jung, Seungho Cho, Jae Yoon Kim, and Sangin Shim

    송기은, 정재경, 조승호, 김재윤, 심상인

    Building self-sustainable rural infrastructure and environment through smart digital agriculture technology innovation is one of the major goals of the Korean agricultural … + READ MORE
    Building self-sustainable rural infrastructure and environment through smart digital agriculture technology innovation is one of the major goals of the Korean agricultural administration as a part of the nation’s 4th industry revolution. To identify areas for improving and effectively investing in the acceleration of rural development, 207 experts in the areas of crop science and smart digital agriculture technology were interviewed for their opinions and suggestions on 22 questions designed to recognize fundamental agricultural issues to be addressed and solutions to advance technology innovation and rural development. Majority of the participants expected smart digital agriculture technologies to resolve major agricultural issues and help build a better rural environment. To overcome technology gaps and resolve issues more effectively, further investment in training new technology experts and building stronger agricultural technology infrastructure is urgent, and persistent and systematic support from agricultural administration appears to be the key for accelerating the process. While the leading global groups of both public and private sectors have advanced their technologies beyond the field application stage, most of the Korean technologies remain at the early pilot stage. Aging population and lack of labor in rural areas, unknown future climate change, and challenges in sustainable rural development are expected to be resolved by smart digital agriculture technologies. Technological innovations by research institutes should be promptly deployed in the crop production field, and farm training systemically organized by local technology centers can accelerate farming revolution. Standardization of equipment and data systems is another key to the success of digitalization of food crop production and food supply chains nationwide. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Transcriptomic Analysis of Triticum aestivum under Salt Stress Reveals Change of Gene Expression

    RNA sequencing을 이용한 염 스트레스 처리 밀(Triticum aestivum)의 유전자 발현 차이 확인 및 후보 유전자 선발

    Donghyun Jeon, Yoonho Lim, Yuna Kang, Chulsoo Park, Donghoon Lee, Junchan Park, Uchan Choi, Kyeonghoon Kim, and Changsoo Kim

    전동현, 임윤호, 강유나, 박철수, 이동훈, 박준찬, 최우찬, 김경훈, 김창수

    As a cultivar of Korean wheat, ‘Keumgang’ wheat variety has a fast growth period and can be grown stably. Hexaploid wheat ( … + READ MORE
    As a cultivar of Korean wheat, ‘Keumgang’ wheat variety has a fast growth period and can be grown stably. Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) has moderately high salt tolerance compared to tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). However, the molecular mechanisms related to salt tolerance of hexaploid wheat have not been elucidated yet. In this study, the candidate genes related to salt tolerance were identified by investigating the genes that are differently expressed in Keumgang variety and examining salt tolerant mutation ‘2020-s1340.’. A total of 85,771,537 reads were obtained after quality filtering using NextSeq 500 Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 23,634,438 reads were aligned with the NCBI Campala Lr22a pseudomolecule v5 reference genome (Triticum aestivum). A total of 282 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two Triticum aestivum materials. These DEGs have functions, including salt tolerance related traits such as ‘wall-associated receptor kinase-like 8’, ‘cytochrome P450’, ‘6-phosphofructokinase 2’. In addition, the identified DEGs were classified into three categories, including biological process, molecular function, cellular component using gene ontology analysis. These DEGs were enriched significantly for terms such as the ‘copper ion transport’, ‘oxidation-reduction process’, ‘alternative oxidase activity’. These results, which were obtained using RNA-seq analysis, will improve our understanding of salt tolerance of wheat. Moreover, this study will be a useful resource for breeding wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance using molecular breeding technology. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Yield and Quality of Black Soybean (Glycine max L.) in Paddy Field under Different Sowing Dates

    검정콩 논재배에서 파종시기가 수량 및 종실 특성에 미치는 영향

    Yeong-Min Jo, Byong Soo Heo, and Kyu-Hwan Choi

    조영민, 허병수, 최규환

    Recently, Black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is being cultivated in paddy fields instead of rice. However, research related to the … + READ MORE
    Recently, Black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is being cultivated in paddy fields instead of rice. However, research related to the effective sowing date is insufficient in paddy fields. This study aimed to identify the sowing date for stable cultivation of black soybean by investigating its yield and seed characteristics in a paddy field. In the study, cultivation experiment with five different sowing dates (May 25, June 10, June 25, July 10, July 25) were conducted in 2019 and 2020. Days from sowing to flowering can be shortened by delaying the sowing date. In the present study, the yield of black soybean in paddy fields was the highest with June 10 as the sowing date and was calculated as 224 kg·10a-1 and 200 kg·10a-1 in 2019 and 2020, respectively. However, the highest values of seed coat cracking was 51.1±5.1% and that of total anthocyanin contents was the 3.99±0.72 mg/g, both of which were observed in 2020 for the experiment with May 25 as the sowing date. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation (R2=0.9312) between soil water contents and seed coat cracking rate during the flowering period. Hence, the soil water contents during the flowering period would have a negative effect on the seed coat development. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Establishment of a Nondestructive Analysis Method for Lignan Content in Sesame using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    근적외선분광(NIRS)을 이용한 참깨의 lignan 함량 비파괴 분석 방법 확립

    Jeongeun Lee, Sung-Up Kim, Myoung-Hee Lee, Jung-In Kim, Eun-Young Oh, Sang-Woo Kim, MinYoung Kim, Jae-Eun Park, Kwang-Soo Cho, and Ki-Won Oh

    이정은, 김성업, 이명희, 김정인, 오은영, 김상우, 김민영, 박재은, 조광수, 오기원

    Sesamin and sesamolin are major lignan components with a wide range of potential biological activities of sesame seeds. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy … + READ MORE
    Sesamin and sesamolin are major lignan components with a wide range of potential biological activities of sesame seeds. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid and non-destructive analysis method widely used for the quantitative determination of major components in many agricultural products. This study was conducted to develop a screening method to determine the lignan contents for sesame breeding. Sesamin and sesamolin contents of 482 sesame samples ranged from 0.03-14.40 mg/g and 0.10-3.79 mg/g with an average of 4.93 mg/g and 1.74 mg/g, respectively. Each sample was scanned using NIRS and calculated for the calibration and validation equations. The optimal performance calibration model was obtained from the original spectra using partial least squares (PLS). The coefficient of determination in calibration (R2) and standard error of calibration (SEC) were 0.963 and 0.861 for sesamin and 0.875 and 0.292 for sesamolin, respectively. Cross-validation results of the NIRS equation showed an R2 of 0.889 in the prediction for sesamin and 0.781 for sesamolin and a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 1.163 for sesamin and 0.417 for sesamolin. The results showed that the NIRS equation for sesamin and sesamolin could be effective in selecting high lignan sesame lines in early generations of sesame breeding. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Investigation of Root Morphological and Architectural Traits in Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Cultivars Using Imagery Data
    Pooja Tripathi and Yoonha Kim
    Roots play important roles in water and nutrient uptake and in response to various environmental stresses. Investigating diversification of cultivars through root … + READ MORE
    Roots play important roles in water and nutrient uptake and in response to various environmental stresses. Investigating diversification of cultivars through root phenotyping is important for crop improvement in adzuki beans. Therefore, we analyzed the morphological and architectural root traits of 22 adzuki bean cultivars using 2-dimensional (2D) root imaging. Plants were grown in plastic tubes [6 cm (diameter) × 40 cm (height)] in a greenhouse from July 25th to August 28th. When the plants reached the 2nd or 3rd trifoliate leaf stage, the roots were removed and washed with tap water to remove soil particles. Clean root samples were scanned, and the scanned images were analyzed using the WinRHIZO Pro software. The cultivars were analyzed based on six root phenotypes [total root length (TRL), surface area (SA), average diameter (AD), and number of tips (NT) were included as root morphological traits (RMT); and link average length (LAL) and link average diameter (LAD) were included as root architectural traits (RAT)]. According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), a significant difference was observed between the cultivars for all root morphological traits. Distribution analysis demonstrated that all root traits except LAL followed a normally distributed curve. In the correlation test, the most important morphological trait, TRL, showed a strong positive correlation with SA (r = 0.97***) and NT (r = 0.94***). In comparison, between RMT and RAT, TRL showed a significantly negative correlation with LAL (r = -0.50***); however, TRL did not show a correlation with LAD. Based on RMT and RAT, we identified the cultivars that ranked 5% from the top and bottom. In particular, the cultivar “IT 236657” showed the highest TRL, SA, and NT, while the cultivar “IT 236169” showed the lowest values for TRL, SA, and NT. In addition, the coefficient of variance for the six tested root traits ranged from (14.26-40%) which suggested statistical variability in root phenotypes among the 22 adzuki bean varieties. Thus, this study will help to select target root traits for the adzuki bean breeding program in the future, generating climate-resilient adzuki beans, especially for drought stress, and may be useful for developing biotic and abiotic stress-tolerant cultivars based on better root trait attributes. - COLLAPSE
    1 March 2022