• Original Research Article

    Effects of Azolla Incorporation During Paddy Cultivation on Weed Control, Nitrogen Supply and Rice Yield

    물개구리밥(Azolla)이 논 잡초 발생, 질소공급 및 쌀 수량에 미치는 영향

    Jong-Hee Shin, Chae-Min Han, Jung-Bae Kwon, Jong-Gun Won

    신종희, 한채민, 권중배, 원종건

    Azolla is a genus of small aquatic ferns native to Asia, Africa, and America. Azolla is potentially significant as a nitrogen source … + READ MORE
    Azolla is a genus of small aquatic ferns native to Asia, Africa, and America. Azolla is potentially significant as a nitrogen source in agriculture, particularly in conjunction with rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation. In addition, Azolla may either control weeds or act as a weed depending on management; therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Azolla incorporation on weed (e.g., Monochoria vaginalis, Rotala indica, Aeschynomene indica, and Cyperus amuricus) control and its other benefits during rice cultivation. The effects of Azolla on weed emergence were evaluated based on plot area coverage by the Azolla mat, which appears as a green sheet over water, and the rate of weed emergence in paddy field. Weed occurrence was investigated 40 days after Azolla inoculation. Soil samples from the experimental plots were collected following harvest in 2014-2015, and analyzed. Moreover, rice growth, yield, and grain quality were measured. Azolla suppressed weed growth by 72%. Azolla mat incorporation in rice fields suppressed weed growth by over 60%. In addition, Azolla promoted nitrogen fixation. Compared with nitrogen management using chemical fertilizers, Azolla incorporation showed the potential for various positive effects, including the improvement of soil fertility by increasing total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rice grown with Azolla maintained its yield without additional herbicide treatment. Moreover, the palatability of cooked rice was better when grown with Azolla. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Changes in Growth and Yield of Different Rice Varieties under Different Planting Densities in Low-Density Transplanting Cultivation

    벼 드문모심기 재식밀도에 따른 품종별 생육 및 수량 변이

    SeoYeong Yang, WoonHa Hwang, JaeHyeok Jeong, HyeonSeok Lee, ChungGeun Lee

    양서영, 황운하, 정재혁, 이현석, 이충근

    Low-density transplanting is a cultivation technology that reduces labor and production costs. In this study, the growth and yield of several varieties … + READ MORE
    Low-density transplanting is a cultivation technology that reduces labor and production costs. In this study, the growth and yield of several varieties with different tillering characteristics were analyzed in order to establish an appropriate planting density for low-density transplanting. Varieties with Low-Tillering (LT), Medium-Tillering (MT), and High-Tillering (HT) were planted at a density of 37–80 hills/3.3 m2. As the planting density decreased, the number of tillers per hill increased, but the number of tillers per square meter of hill decreased, especially for the LT variety. Decreasing density extended the tillering stage, which was longest in the LT variety. As the planting density decreased, SPAD(Soil plant analysis development, chlorophyll meter) values just before heading increased while canopy light interception decreased. Such changes were much greater in the LT variety than in the MT and HT varieties. The heading date tended to be delayed by 0–2 days as the planting density decreased, and there was no difference in the length of the period from first heading to full heading. As the number of spikelets per panicle increased, the number of spikelets per square meter did not differ according to the planting density. Decreasing planting density did not affect the grain weight; nevertheless, the yield ultimately decreased because of the decreasing ripening rate. The optimal planting density for stable low-density transplanting cultivation was determined to be over 50 hills/3.3 m2. In addition, these results suggest that LT varieties should be avoided, since these showed large decreases in growth and yield with decreasing planting density. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Investigation of the Ptimum Transplanting Date for Floury Endosperm Rice to Reduce the Viviparity Rate

    쌀가루 가공용 벼 품종의 수발아 발생 감소를 위한 적합 이앙시기 설정

    Woon-Ha Hwang, Meong-Gue Choi, Jae-Hyeok Jeong, Hyen-Seok Lee, Seo-Yeong Yang, Chung-gun Lee

    황운하, 최명구, 정재혁, 이현석, 양서영, 이충근

    This study aimed to analyze the optimal transplanting date of the floury endosperm rice varieties Hangaru, Seolgeang, Singil, and Baromi2 allowing to … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to analyze the optimal transplanting date of the floury endosperm rice varieties Hangaru, Seolgeang, Singil, and Baromi2 allowing to reduce the viviparity rate. The viviparity rate rapidly increased with the mean temperature during the ripening stage. Therefore, to reduce the viviparity rate, we calculated the optimum heading date based on the safe heading date limit in each area so that the ripening stage occurred at lower temperatures. hen, the effects of changes in heading date were monitored by recording the transplanting date and the temperature during the growth period. The transplanting date was highly correlated with the number of heading days in the field. Therefore, the optimum transplanting date was calculated according to the transplanting date in each area. When the accumulated temperature was 700°C, if floury rice was transplanted at the optimum transplanting date, the mean temperature was approximately 20°C. When the accumulated temperature was 900°C, the mean temperature was approximately 18°C. Under these conditions, the viviparity rates of Hangaru, Seolgeang, and Singil rice were lower than 10%. However, Baromi2 showed a high viviparity rate. These results suggest that the viviparity rate of Hangaru, Seolgeang, and Singil rice can be reduced by transplanting at the optimum transplanting date. However, further research is required for pinpointing the optimum transplanting date of Baromi2 rice. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effects of Forage-Rice Cropping Systems on the Growth and Grain Quality of Early Maturing Rice Cultivars and Soil Chemical Properties in Paddy Fields in Southern Korea

    사료작물-벼 작부체계가 조생종 벼의 생육과 미질 특성 및 토양의 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향

    Seo Young Oh, Seong Hwan Oh, Jong Ho Seo, Jisu Choi

    오서영, 오성환, 서종호, 최지수

    To select rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars suitable for forage–rice double cropping system, the growth and grain quality of four early … + READ MORE
    To select rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars suitable for forage–rice double cropping system, the growth and grain quality of four early maturing rice cultivars (Joun, Jopyeong, Haedamssal, and Unkwang), and the chemical properties of soils were investigated under single- (fallow–rice) and forage–rice double-cropping systems in paddy fields in Miryang, southern Korea. The soil where two forage crops [Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oat (Avena sativa L.)] were cultivated during winter had a slightly lower pH; an increase in total nitrogen (T-N), K, Ca, and Na contents; and a slight decrease in organic matter and available P2O5 contents, compared with the soil fallowed during winter. This shows that the chemical properties of paddy soils can be improved by winter forage cropping. At the heading stage, the culm length, panicle length, panicle number, and leaf color of all cultivars, except for Haedamssal, were generally higher under double-cropping than under single-cropping. For Haedamssal, the culm length and leaf color did not differ between the cropping systems, but the panicle length was slightly shortened and its panicle number increased under double-cropping. After harvest, the yield of milled rice decreased for all cultivars except Haedamssal, but increased in Haedamssal under double-cropping. The head rice rate was slightly higher under double cropping, particularly in Jopyeong and Haedamssal, than under single-cropping. The protein content of milled rice under double cropping was higher and its amylose content was similar or slightly lower compared to those of rice under single cropping, resulting in decreased Toyo values for rice under double-cropping. The pasting temperature did not differ significantly between the cropping systems. However, Haedamssal had a low pasting temperature but a high Toyo value under double cropping, compared to the other three cultivars, suggesting that its palatability is relatively high. Furthermore, panicle number increased and milled rice yield did not decrease, even under double cropping. Therefore, Haedamssal seems to be the best cultivar for paddy-based double cropping with forage crops. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effects of Elevated Temperature after the Booting Stage on Physiological Characteristics and Grain Development in Wheat

    밀에서 출수 후 잎의 생리적 특성 및 종실 생장에 대한 수잉기 이후 고온의 효과

    Ki Eun Song, Jae Eun Choi, Jae Gyeong Jung, Jong Han Ko, Kyung Do Lee, Sang-In Shim

    송기은, 최재은, 정재경, 고종한, 이경도, 심상인

    In recent years, global warming has led to frequent climate change-related problems, and elevated temperatures, among adverse climatic factors, represent a critical … + READ MORE
    In recent years, global warming has led to frequent climate change-related problems, and elevated temperatures, among adverse climatic factors, represent a critical problem negatively affecting crop growth and yield. In this context, the present study examined the physiological traits of wheat plants grown under high temperatures. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperatures on seed development after heading were evaluated, and the vegetation indices of different organs were assessed using hyperspectral analysis. Among physiological traits, leaf greenness and OJIP parameters were higher in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment. Similarly, the leaf photosynthetic rate during seed development was higher in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment. Moreover, temperature by organ was higher in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment; consequently, the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher in the control treatment than in the high-temperature treatment. On all measuring dates, the weight of spikes and seeds corresponding to the sink organs was greater in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment. Additionally, the seed growth rate was higher in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment 14 days after heading, which may be attributed to the higher redistribution of photosynthates at the early stage of seed development in the former. In hyperspectral analysis, the vegetation indices related to leaf chlorophyll content and nitrogen state were higher in the high-temperature treatment than in the control treatment after heading. Our results suggest that elevated temperatures after the booting stage positively affect wheat growth and yield. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effect of Zebularine on Chromosomal Association between Meiotic Homoeologous Chromosomes in Wheat Genetic Background (Triticum aestivum L.)

    제부라린이 생식세포분열 동안 동조 염색체 사이의 염색체 접합에 미치는 영향

    Seong-Woo Cho, Takayoshi Ishii, Hisashi Tsujimoto

    조성우, TakayoshiIshii, HisashiTsujimoto

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of zebularine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, on the chromosomal association between homoeologous … + READ MORE
    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of zebularine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, on the chromosomal association between homoeologous chromosomes in the wheat genetic background. Zebularine at a final concentration of 10 µM was used to treat the spikes of the double monosomic wheat addition line (DMA) with one Leymus mollis chromosome and one Leymus racemosus chromosome, both of which were in a homoeologous relationship. In late prophase, zebularine led to chromosome breakage in the Leymus homoeologous chromosomes. Chromosome breakage caused an increase in the frequency of chromosomal associations between the Leymus homoeologous chromosomes. Ordinary DMA showed 65 cells (35.3%) with chromosomal associations and 119 cells (64.7%) with no association, whereas treated DMA showed 102 cells (60.0%) with chromosomal associations and 67 cells (39.4%) with no association. In diakinesis, the Leymus bivalent showed a chromosomal association in the whole euchromatic region. In metaphase, the Leymus bivalent showed association in the whole chromosomal region, unlike other Leymus bivalents with partial chromosomal association. Chromosomal association by chromosome breakage occurred not only between Leymus chromosomes but also between Leymus and wheat chromosomes. The frequency of other chromosomal association (such as fusion and insert) was increased. Chromosome breakage by zebularine treatment is a useful method at the chromosome level as the spores with others are hereditary stable, although the homologous index (h) was not significantly different between ordinary DMA and treated DMA. It is necessary to study how to control zebularine treatment with a more stable concentration for chromosome breakage during meiosis. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Discrimination and Hordein Polypeptide Patterns of Malting Barley Varieties Using UPLC

    UPLC 분석을 이용한 맥주보리 품종의 호데인 단백질 분석 및 품종 판별

    Young-Mi Yoon, Yang-Kil Kim, Chon-Sik Kang, Jin-Cheon Park, Tae-Il Park

    윤영미, 김양길, 강천식, 박진천, 박태일

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to assess the hordein protein fraction of malting barley. C-hordeins (barley prolamins) were extracted with 70% … + READ MORE
    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to assess the hordein protein fraction of malting barley. C-hordeins (barley prolamins) were extracted with 70% ethanol (EtOH) and 55% isopropyl alcohol (IPA, 2-propanol), and B-hordeins were extracted with the same alcohols in 1.0% dithiothreitol (DTT). High molecular weight (HMW) prolamins (D-hordeins) were extracted with 50% IPA with 1M Tris-HCl (pH 8.0). The same protein patterns were observed in both the experimental extraction solutions (EtOH and IPA). However, the patterns of hordein, extracted with EtOH and IPA containing 1.0% DTT, differed slightly. C- and B-hordeins extracted from those solutions were analyzed. Twenty-six malting barley varieties developed in Korea were analyzed using UPLC. The varieties were divided into seven groups according to hordein patterns of retention time 16 min to 18 min, and 20 varieties showed unique patterns. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Occurrence of the Bacterial Diseases of Soybean in Chungbuk Province in 2017

    콩 주요 세균병의 충북지역 발생현황

    Geon-sig Yun, Hye-Lim Moon, Tae-Il Kim, Ik-Jei Kim, Young-Ho Kim, Hong-Sig Kim, Jae-soon Cha

    윤건식, 문혜림, 김태일, 김익제, 김영호, 김홍식, 차재순

    In recent years, the occurrence of bacterial diseases of soybean has been increasing due to the continuous rise in spring temperature and … + READ MORE
    In recent years, the occurrence of bacterial diseases of soybean has been increasing due to the continuous rise in spring temperature and the humid weather as a result of rain concentrated at the middle and late stages of crop growth. The resulting severe economic damage is also a concern. Unfortunately, there are no precise data on the occurrence and damage to lay the foundation for bacterial disease control in soybean in the Chungbuk Province. Therefore, the present study investigated the occurrence of major bacterial diseases, namely bacterial pustules, bacterial blight, and wildfire, in different soybean varieties in 410 fields in the Chungbuk Province in 2017. The incidence rate of bacterial pustules in the affected fields was 76.6%, and the incidence rate of infected plants was 29.3%. The incidence rate of bacterial blight in the affected fields was 13.9%, and the incidence rate of infected plants was 4.6%. The incidence rate of wildfire in the affected fields was 23.2%, and the incidence rate of infected plants was 10.1%. The overall incidence rate of bacterial diseases in the soybean fields where the diseases originated was 37.9% for bacterial pustules, 21.0% for bacterial blight, and 25.0% for wildfire, indicating that the disease incidence rate in fields where the disease originated was generally high. Among different varieties, the incidence rate of bacterial pustules was the highest in sprout soybean (88.9%), followed by Seoritae (84.0%) and Daewon (81.2%). The incidence rate of bacterial blight was the highest in the Daewon (19.6%), followed by Seoritae (15.2%) and sprout soybean (12.5%). The incidence rate of wildfire was the highest in sprout soybean (25.0%), followed by Daewon (24.7%) and Seoritae (5.4%). Meanwhile, in Uram, the incidence rate of bacterial pustules (7.1%) was the lowest, and this variety was not affected by bacterial blight or wildfire. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Seed Color Classification Method for Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using Imagery Data and an HTML Color Chart

    이미지 데이터와 HTML 색도표를 이용한 강낭콩(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)의 종피색 분포확인 및 그 응용방법 모색

    Sookyeong Lee, Chaewon Lee, Younguk Kim, Jeongho BAEK, Gyung Deok Han, Manjung Kang

    이수경, 이채원, 김영욱, 백정호, 한경덕, 강만정

    In the present study, the seed color of 200 common bean genetic resources was analyzed and located on the HTML color chart … + READ MORE
    In the present study, the seed color of 200 common bean genetic resources was analyzed and located on the HTML color chart to classify these resources according to color characteristics. This classification method predicts the components of seed and may serve as a new method for efficiently using secured genetic resources. The imagary data of common bean exhibiting various seed colors were expressed using the HTML color chart. According to the proposed classification method, the seed color was distributed in seven categories: yellow-green, yellow, brown, red, white, gray, and indigo. In addition, the distribution of each seed color was according to its concentration. The distribution by concentration was the highest for red, whereas the distribution of gray and yellow-green was not concentration-dependent. As the dominant pigments based on color distribution, chlorophylls in yellow-green; carotenoids in yellow; and anthocyanins in brown, red, white, gray, and indigo significantly affected seed color. When expressed objectively, seed colors can be applied to the systematic management, breeding, and cultivation of genetic resources and can be useful for marketing or developing products of desired colors. This method can also be applied to other crops. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Possibility of Using Non-selective Herbicides as Desiccants for Improving Soybean Harvest Efficiency

    콩 수확 효율 증진을 위한 건조제로서 비선택성 제초제의 활용 가능성

    Ok Jae Won, Seo yeon Hong, Eun Ji Suh, Jae-Sung Park, Hong Seok Lee, Jin-Ki Park, Jong-Soo Ryu, Won-Young Han, Kil Su Han, Duk Young Song

    원옥재, 홍서연, 서은지, 박재성, 이홍석, 박진기, 류종수, 한원영, 한길수, 송득영

    This study was conducted to select a desiccant and determine its concentration for safe usage to improve the harvesting efficiency of soybeans. … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to select a desiccant and determine its concentration for safe usage to improve the harvesting efficiency of soybeans. Soybeans were treated with a desiccant (non-selective herbicide) before and after the maturation stage. The drying effect of the desiccant was higher at earlier treatment times than at the maturation stage, but the difference was not statistically significant. The higher efficacy might be related to the drying process of the leaves and stems, with most of the leaves and stems having already been dried by the time of hand harvesting. Desiccant treatments had no adverse effects on soybean yield, weight of 100 grains, seed quality, or seed germination rate compared with the untreated control. Pesticide residue analysis showed minimum residue concentration to be lower than the tolerance level of pesticide residues. In conclusion, it was confirmed that the desiccant was effective in drying soybean, and that there was no damage to the quality of soybean seeds. In addition to the drying effect, the dessicant treatment also facilitates the removal of weeds that interfere with the mechanical harvest and improves harvesting efficiency through the drying of the growth imbalanced individual. The desiccant treatment is expected to shorten the mechanical harvesting time by 1-2 weeks. It is thought that the selection of the proper cultivation period for other crops after soybean cultivation will be more advantageous. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Differential Expression of Isoflavone Biosynthetic Genes in Soybean During Germination

    콩 발아기간 중 isoflavone 생합성 유전자 발현 변이

    Jin-Su Lim, Seo-Young Kim, Yong-Ho Kim

    임진수, 김서영, 김용호

    Soybean isoflavones are essential secondary metabolites synthesized through the phenylpropanoid pathway, and they play vital roles in human health. Isoflavone content is … + READ MORE
    Soybean isoflavones are essential secondary metabolites synthesized through the phenylpropanoid pathway, and they play vital roles in human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study analyzed the content of isoflavone and expression of six key genes involved in its biosynthesis (i.e., CHS6, HID, IF7GT, IF7MaT, GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3) during soybean seed germination. Isoflavone content was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoflavone biosynthetic gene expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Two cultivars, namely ‘Daepung2ho’ and ‘Pungsannamulkong’, which are high- and low-isoflavone cultivars, respectively, were used. Isoflavone accumulation gradually increased with the progression of the germination period. As such, malonyl glucosides accounted for over 80% of the total content, whereas acetyl glucosides were present at trace amounts. Transcriptional analysis of isoflavone biosynthetic genes demonstrated expression patterns parallel to isoflavone content; however, there was no clear correlation between isoflavone content and gene expression. Moreover, most isoflavone biosynthetic genes showed different expression patterns depending on the individual gene or genotypes. Among the tested genes, HID showed consistently higher expression, except at 3 days after germination, and its expression was upregulated in ‘Daepung2ho’ but downregulated in ‘Pungsannamulkong’. In addition, all tested genes exhibited different expression patterns between cotyledons and hypocotyls and responded differently to the germination period. These findings suggest that the expression levels of isoflavone biosynthetic genes are not consistent with the germination period and appear to be genotype-dependent. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Growth and Yield of Double Cropping Potatoes Produced Using Seed Tubers of Different Types and Sizes
    Hyun Jin Park, Gyu Bin Lee, Young Eun Park, Ji Hong Cho, Jang Gyu Choi, Jin Hee Seo, Chung Gi Cheon, Dong Chil Chang
    For stable cultivation in double cropping, it is important to use potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars with a short dormancy period … + READ MORE
    For stable cultivation in double cropping, it is important to use potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars with a short dormancy period of 50–70 days and plant seed tubers of appropriate type and size. An experiment was conducted during 2018–2019 to investigate the effects of seed tuber type and size on growth and yield performance in double cropping. Whole tubers of three sizes (10–20 g, 30–40 g, and 50–60 g) and conventional cut tubers weighing 30–40 g from three cultivars with different dormancy periods, namely ‘Daeji’ (40–60 days), ‘Eunsun’ (50–60 days), and ‘Saebong’ (50–80 days), were planted, and their field performance was compared. Regardless of the cultivar, the increase in the whole tuber weight up to 30–40 g led to fast emergence, thereby increasing ground cover rate, shoot growth rate, and tuber growth rate, which ultimately improved tuber yield by 33–54%. Comparing the whole and cut tubers, ‘Daeji’ and ‘Eunsun’ showed similar growth and yield performance; as such, the performance of whole tubers weighing 10–20 g was comparable to that of cut tubers weighing 30–40 g. However, ‘Saebong’, a cultivar with relatively long dormancy period, performed better with cut tuber than with whole tubers. Based on these results, we recommend the use of whole tubers weighing over 30 g for double cropping. Further studies to break tuber dormancy are warranted in cultivars with relatively long dormancy periods (50–80 days), such as ‘Saebong’. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Yield of Tuber Roots and Functional Substances According to the Planting Interval and Cultivation Period in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    재식간격 및 재배 기간에 따른 고구마 수량 및 유용성분 함량 평가

    Won Park, Tae Hwa Kim, Hyeong-Un Lee, Im Been Lee, Su Jung Kim, Jae Hwan Roh, Mi Nam Chung

    박원, 김태화, 이형운, 이임빈, 김수정, 노재환, 정미남

    To develop a cultivation method for the mass production of sweetpotato cultivars, ‘Juhwangmi’ (orange tuber) and ‘Sinjami’ (puple tuber), the yield of … + READ MORE
    To develop a cultivation method for the mass production of sweetpotato cultivars, ‘Juhwangmi’ (orange tuber) and ‘Sinjami’ (puple tuber), the yield of tuber roots and content of various functional substances were analyzed according to planting intervals and growing periods. For ‘Juhwangmi, the total yield of tubers was increased by respectively 36% and 54% and the yield of tubers over 300 g was increased by respectively 170% and 221% in the 140-day and 160-day cultivation plots compared with that in the 120-day cultivation plot at the 70×20 cm planting interval. Similarly, the total content of beta-carotene in the tubers increased as the cultivation period was extended. In particular, beta-carotene content at the 70×20 cm planting interval was the highest. For ‘Sinjami’, at the same planting interval, the total yield of tubers and yield of tubers over 300 g significantly increased as the growing period was extended. Within the same cultivation period, the yield of tubers over 300 g and the total anthocyanin content of ‘Sinjami’ were higher at the 70×30 and 70×35 cm planting intervals than at the 70×20 and 70×25 cm planting intervals in the 140-day and 160-day cultivation plots. Moreover, the total polyphenol and flavonoid content was significantly higher in ‘Sinjami’ than in ‘Juhwangmi’, and the values were the highest in the 160-day cultivation plots. In particular, the content of these two functional substances in tubers over 300 g was the highest at the 70×30 and 70×35 cm planting intervals. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effects of Tillage Practice and Planting Date on Maize-onion Growth and Yield in Southern Regions Paddy Field

    경운방법 및 파종시기가 남부지역 논 재배 옥수수와 후작 양파의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향

    Wonsang Park, Gamgon Kim, Yonghyun Jeong, Nayoung Choi, Chae-In Na

    박원상, 김감곤, 정용현, 최나영, 나채인

    The present study investigated the effects of tillage practices (deep cultivation [DC] and conventional tillage [CT]) and extended planting dates (mid-June to … + READ MORE
    The present study investigated the effects of tillage practices (deep cultivation [DC] and conventional tillage [CT]) and extended planting dates (mid-June to July) for maize-onion rotation in paddy fields. The silage corn (Zea mays L.) cultivar ‘Kwangpyeongok’ and the waxy corn cultivar ‘Ilmichal’ were planted on June 14, July 3, and July 15 in 2019. In both maize, the plant height of June 14 planted was up to 100 cm greater than that of July 15 planted on August 16 and up to 40 cm on August 30. At 30 Days after planting, the leaf area index (LAI) of silage corn planted on July 3 and 15 greater than that of corn planted on June 14 due to high temperature in the early season; however, there were no differences in the LAI of waxy corn according to the planting date. Despite favorable temperature, plants sown on July 3 and 15 experienced high moisture stress during the seedling stage due to consistent rainfall, and waxy corn was highly sensitive to high moisture stress. The total yield of silage corn was 1,232 (845 in TDN), 860 (598 in TDN), and 765 (508 in TDN) DW kg・10a-1 for plants sown on June 14, July 3, and July 15, respectively. The fresh marketable ear yield of waxy corn was 872, 814, and 525 FW kg・10a-1 for plants sown on June 14, July 3, and July 15, respectively. After the completion of maize cultivation, onion seedlings (Allium cepa L.) were transplanted on November 12, 2019, and harvested on May 27, 2020. Neither summer tillage nor maize planting date affected onion growth or yield. The marketable onion yield was 8,305 and 7,848 kg・10a-1 with DC and CT, respectively. In conclusion, DC did not improve maize growth or yield under paddy conditions. Mid-June to early July is a practical window for maize planting for growers in this region. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Quality Characteristics of Perilla frutescens Cultivars According to Different Sowing Dates

    파종 시기에 따른 들깨 품종별 품질 특성 변화

    Jung In Kim, Myoung Hee Lee, Sungup Kim, Eunyoung Oh, Tae Joung Ha, Ki Won Oh, Kwang-Soo Cho, Chan Sik Jung

    김정인, 이명희, 김성업, 오은영, 하태정, 오기원, 조광수, 정찬식

    The present study investigated the quality characteristics of Perilla frutescens Britt. seed compounds according to the cultivar and sowing dates. In the … + READ MORE
    The present study investigated the quality characteristics of Perilla frutescens Britt. seed compounds according to the cultivar and sowing dates. In the present experiment, five Perilla cultivars, namely ‘Dayu’, ‘Deulsaem’, ‘Deulhyang’, ‘Baekjin’, ‘Sodam’, were planted on three different dates, including May 30, June 20, and July 10. The contents of key compounds and phenols varied depending on the cultivar and sowing date. With the delayed sowing time, the days to flowering and maturity of the culitvar decreased, while the seed weight and hardness increased. Crude protein content increased but crude lipid content decreased with the delay in the sowing time. However, there was no interaction of different sowing dates with the fatty acid content, which remained stable compared with the other values. Overall, the total polyphenol content was higher in Perilla seeds sown on May 30. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effect of Different Sowing Dates on the Yield-related Traits and Seed Yield of Sesame

    파종시기에 따른 참깨 수량구성요소 및 수량에 미치는 영향

    Kang Bo Shim, Myoung Na Shin, Won Tae Jeon, Arum Han

    심강보, 신명나, 전원태, 한아름

    The yield potential of sesame depends on genetic factor, environmental factor, genetic x environmental interaction, as well as agronomic factors such as … + READ MORE
    The yield potential of sesame depends on genetic factor, environmental factor, genetic x environmental interaction, as well as agronomic factors such as sowing date, planting density or seed rate for sowing. The main aim of this study was to analyze the effects of different sowing dates on the yield-related traits and total seed weight of sesame. The analysis of variance revealed that different sowing dates affected sesame yield-related traits such as plant height, number of branch per plant, number of capsule per plant, 1,000-seed weight, and total seed weight. Early or late sowing date showed negative effect of yield-related sesame traits and total seed weight. Optimum sowing date for sesame in the middle region of Korean peninsula was May 10th, in which total seed yield recorded 90 kg per 10 are. Path-coefficient analysis revealed that the number of capsule per plant and plant height were major factors that affected the total seed weight of sesame across different sowing dates. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Effects of Transplanting and Direct Seeding on the Growth and Yield of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) during Spring Cultivation

    유채 봄 재배 시 기계이식과 직파 재배시기에 따른 생육 및 수량 비교

    Ji-Eun Lee, Kwang-Soo Kim, Da-hee An, Young-Lok Cha

    이지은, 김광수, 안다희, 차영록

    In South Korea, direct seeding of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is difficult during spring cultivation in early March because of the … + READ MORE
    In South Korea, direct seeding of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is difficult during spring cultivation in early March because of the low yield production associated with late flowering and poor seed quality. To compare the period of direct sowing, the present study investigated the growth characteristics of rapeseed according to planting dates. Specifically, 35 day-old seedlings were transplanted or directly sown on four different dates (late February, early March, late March, and early April) in 2020 and 2021. As the planting date was delayed, the days to flowering of rapeseed decreased. Similarly, the plant height, seed set percentage, and seed yield of rapeseed were reduced upon delay in planting. The seed yield of rapeseed through direct seeding in late February was the highest, 2.76 ton·ha-1. On all seeding dates, except for late February, the transplanted rapeseed produced a higher yields than the directly seeded rapeseed. The crude oil and oleic acid content, which is related to the quality of rapeseed, decreased with the delay in planting dates, and this decrease was greater, with the direct seeding of rapeseed depending on the sowing time. In the correlation analysis, the planting date was significantly and negatively correlated with the yield, crude oil content, and oleic acid content of the transplanted rapeseed, while the sowing date was negatively correlated with the plant height, silique size, yield, and seed quality of the directly seeded rapeseed. Finally, the effect of planting date on rapeseed growth was stronger in direct seeding than in transplanting. Therefore, during spring cultivation after late February to early March, transplanting, rather than direct seeding, in more advantageous in terms of seed quality and yield. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Comparison of the Seed Productivity of Italian Ryegrass in Different Regions

    다른 지역에서 이탈리안 라이그라스의 종자 생산성 비교

    Ji-Eun Byeon, Hong-Ju Lee, Sun-Goo Hwang, Jong-Won Ryoo

    변지은, 이홍주, 황선구, 류종원

    To study whether the area under the cultivation of Italian ryegrass (IRG) has increased with rise in global temperatures, we investigated the … + READ MORE
    To study whether the area under the cultivation of Italian ryegrass (IRG) has increased with rise in global temperatures, we investigated the effects of climatic variables on seed productivity in different parts of Gangwon-do, South Korea. Specifically, IRG was cultivated in the western (Gangneung), central (Wonju), and northern (Chuncheon) parts of Gangwon-do. The heading date of IRG in Gangneung was earlier than that in the other regions. Moreover, the values of agronomic traits, including spikelets per spike, grains per spike, and thousand-grain weight, were lower in Chuncheon. However, there were no differences spikelets per spike and grains per spike between Wonju and Gangneung. Additionally, the thousand-grain weight and seed production were higher in Gangneung. Statistical correlation analysis between climatic variables and agronomic traits revealed that the mean daily minimum temperature was positively correlated with seed formation-related traits in April and seed maturity-related traits in May. In the light of rising minimum temperatures in Gangwon-do, Gangneung, Chuncheon and Wonju are suitable areas for IRG cultivation with optimal seed productivity. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Selection of Coating Materials for Italian Ryegrass Seed and Its Germination Assessment

    이탈리안 라이그라스 종자 코팅을 위한 피복 재료 선발 및 발아 평가

    Hyeonsoo Jang, Hui-su Bae, Yun-ho Lee, Dae-Uk Kim, Seung-hyun Ahn, Jong-Tak Youn, Uk-Han Kim

    장현수, 배희수, 이윤호, 김대욱, 안승현, 윤종탁, 김욱한

    This study was conducted to determine an appropriate coating method for mechanized sowing of small and light Italian ryegrass seeds. In the … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine an appropriate coating method for mechanized sowing of small and light Italian ryegrass seeds. In the case of manufacturing coated seeds, 2% PVA was superior as an adhesive compared to PVP and Tween80. Calcium carbonate + talc adhered to the seeds smoothly and well and the seed weight was higher than that of the other coating materials. The germination percentage of seeds coated with calcium carbonate + talc was 95.8%, which was not significantly different from 96.5% of the control group, but the mean daily germination was the highest. As the coverage ratio of calcium carbonate + talc increased, the strength tended to increase when coated at 1.5 times the seed weight. There was no difference in the germination rate and plant height compared to the control group according to the coverage ratio. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Original Research Article

    Development of EST-SSRs and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Germplasm of the Finger Millet, Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.
    Xiaohan Wang, Myung Chul Lee, Yu-Mi Choi, Seong-Hoon Kim, Seahee Han, Kebede Taye Desta, Hye-myeong Yoon, Yoonjung Lee, Miae Oh, Jung Yoon Yi, Myoung-Jae Shin, Kyung-Min Kim
    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is widely cultivated in tropical regions worldwide owing to its high nutritional value. Finger millet is … + READ MORE
    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is widely cultivated in tropical regions worldwide owing to its high nutritional value. Finger millet is more tolerant against biotic and abiotic stresses such as pests, drought, and salt than other millet crops; therefore, it was proposed as a candidate crop to adapt to climate change in Korea. In 2019, we used expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of 102 finger millet accessions from two geographical regions (Africa and South Asia) to identify appropriate accessions and enhance crop diversity in Korea. In total, 40 primers produced 116 alleles, ranging in size from 135 to 457 bp, with a mean polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.18225. Polymorphism was detected among the 40 primers, and 13 primers were found to have PIC values > 0.3. Principal coordinate and phylogenetic analyses, based on the combined data of both markers, grouped the finger millet accessions according to their respective collection areas.Therefore, the 102 accessions were classified into two groups, one from Asia and the other from Africa. We have conducted an in-depth study on the finger millet landrace pedigree. By sorting out and using the molecular characteristics of each pedigree, it will be useful for the management and accession identification of the plant resource. The novel SSR markers developed in this study will aid in future genetic analyses of E. coracana. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Review Aticle

    Imagery Acquisition Methods for Root Analysis in Crops under Field Conditions

    포장에서 작물의 뿌리분석을 위한 이미지 획득방법

    Yoonha Kim

    김윤하

    Roots are the most important organs in plants that absorb nutrients and moisture from the soil. However, owing to difficulties in root … + READ MORE
    Roots are the most important organs in plants that absorb nutrients and moisture from the soil. However, owing to difficulties in root data collection, root research is still poorly conducted as compared to shoot research. Recent advancements in crop phenotyping, through advanced imagery data, are rapidly increasing, and artificial intelligence has been applied in various crop root research. Depending on the purpose, different root analysis methods have been developed that measure roots directly in soil or after separation from the soil. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages; therefore, it can be used in accordance with the research interest. Therefore, this review introduces root analysis methods that use imagery systems to help domestic researchers precisely study plant roots or root architecture. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021
  • Review Aticle

    Current Status and Direction of Weed Management According to Cropping Systems

    작부체계에 따른 잡초관리 연구 동향과 방향

    Jihyun Lee, Myeong-Na Shin, Bon-Il Ku, Kang-Bo Shim, Weon-Tai Jeon

    이지현, 신명나, 구본일, 심강보, 전원태

    The present study was conducted to propose future research directions for weed management by examining the current trends of research on weed … + READ MORE
    The present study was conducted to propose future research directions for weed management by examining the current trends of research on weed occurrence according to cropping systems. The cropping systems are developed for the efficient use of arable land, and the weed flora changes according to the management practices of a given cropping system. In particular, weed occurrence can be reduced by altering the soil environment. In addition, cultivation methods, such as tillage, affect the weed seed bank in the soil, thus altering the pattern of weed occurrence. Here, we propose three weed management practices according to the cropping system. First, it is necessary to develop a model that can classify weed species by analyzing young seedlings and can predict the flora in the field. Second, it is important to manage the cropping system history and establish a database of agricultural information, which can be linked to meteorological and geographic data. Third, it is critical to estimate the weed occurrence and soil seed bank dynamics, based on which a cropping system platform and digitalization technology can be developed. In the future, the prediction of weed occurrence and control according to the cropping system will contribute to sustainable agriculture by reducing the use of herbicides and solving the problems of resistant weeds. - COLLAPSE
    1 December 2021