• Original Research Article

    Effects of Water-deficit Stress on Yield and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Rice during the Early Tillering Stage

    분얼기 수분 스트레스가 벼 생육 특성 및 엽록소 형광 반응에 미치는 영향

    Chae-Min Han, Jong-Hee Shin, Jung-Bae Kwon, Jong-Gun Won, and Sang-Kuk Kim

    한채민, 신종희, 권중배, 원종건, 김상국

    This study aimed to evaluate the growth, yield, and grain quality characteristics of rice varieties that were subjected to water stress during … + READ MORE
    This study aimed to evaluate the growth, yield, and grain quality characteristics of rice varieties that were subjected to water stress during the tillering stage. We also sought to identify whether water stress could be indicated via the plants’ response to chlorophyll fluorescence. In this study, we induced water stress by intentionally cutting off water for 30 days, starting 15 days after transplanting the rice varieties to a greenhouse. We analyzed nine rice varieties, including Ilpum, which is the most frequently cultivated variety in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea. The control group was planted in a paddy field where irrigation was entirely dependent on rainfall. Our results revealed that the heading stage of the nine studied varieties occurred approximately ten days earlier in the rain shelter than in the field. Moreover, the rice yield, head rice rate, and palatability score decreased by 18.6%, 17.1%, and 8.3%, respectively, while protein content increased by 20.2% compared with the control group. The Saenuri and Haimi varieties showed the lowest reduction in yield under the water stress conditions, while the Daebo and Samkwang varieties showed the highest reduction in yield. The chlorophyll fluorescence response after re-irrigation was measured between July 30th and August 17th. The ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM) values failed to recover to their baseline values, resulting in either no change or a reduction in fluorescent response, even after re-irrigation of Daebo and Samkwang varieties. These results can be utilized as empirical data for drought-affected farms to select resistant varieties that can respond to spring drought in the southern plains of Gyeongsangbuk-do. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Rice Yield and Quality in Mixed Cropping of Several Colored Rice Cultivars

    유색미 혼합 재배시 수량 및 현미 품질

    Jong-Hee Shin, Chae-Min Han, Jung-Bae Kwon, Jong-Gun Won

    신종희, 한채민, 권중배, 원종건

    The mixed cropping system is a centuries-old cropping technique widely practiced in farmers’ fields worldwide. Increased plant diversity enhances farmland biodiversity, which … + READ MORE
    The mixed cropping system is a centuries-old cropping technique widely practiced in farmers’ fields worldwide. Increased plant diversity enhances farmland biodiversity, which improves grain yield and quality. However, the effect of growing different rice cultivars simultaneously has rarely been investigated. In the present study, six glutinous rice cultivars were selected, and two mixture cultivation methods were determined according to plant height, grain yield, and color. Colored and glutinous rice are used for specific purposes by consumers because of their color and nutritive value. Six glutinous rice varieties, including aromatic and colored rice, were included in the combination interplanting trials. The results showed that, compared with the corresponding monocropping systems, almost all combinations of the mixed cropping systems had advantages in yield-related traits. Compared with monocropping systems, mixed cropping systems increased the number of panicles per plant and maturation rate by 20% and 10%, respectively. An increase of 18–20% grain yield was observed in mixed cropping plots compared with that in plots which grew only a single rice variety. Some rice varieties, such as green colored rice ‘Nogwonchall’ and black colored rice ‘Chungpunghukhayangchall’, exhibited 18–22% increased yield when they were planted in combinations. The high yields were primarily owing to improved light interception and reduced lodging, although other factors (for example, reduced severity of disease) may have also contributed. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Evaluation of Cultivation Limit Area for Different Types of Barley owing to Climate Change based on Cultivation Status and Area of Certified Seed Request

    기후변화에 따른 맥종별 재배실태와 보급종 보급지역에 의한 재배한계지 평가

    Hyun Hwa Park, Hyo Jin Lee, Sug Won Roh, Hoon Hwangbo, Yong In Kuk

    박현화, 이효진, 노석원, 황보훈, 국용인

    This study was conducted to determine the extent to which climate change is expanding areas in which barley can be successfully cultivated. … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the extent to which climate change is expanding areas in which barley can be successfully cultivated. In 2019 and 2020, we collected data on areas that had requested certified seeds from the Korea Seed and Variety Service to determine potential cultivation areas. In addition, we surveyed the growth and yield of different types of barley in fields. Certified seeds of hulled and dehulled barley were requested by farmers across Korea from the Korea Seed and Variety Service in both years. Areas that were provided with certified seeds were considered potential barley cultivation areas. The varieties and use rates of certified seeds varied based on the barley type and region. For example, certified seeds of dehulled barley in 2019 and 2020 were not used in some areas, whereas in others, these seeds constituted 100% of the seeds sown for barley crops. In 2019 and 2020, the average sowing days in Korea were from October 17 to November 9 for dehulled barley, October 26 to November 13 for hulled barley, October 19 to November 5 for malting barley, and October 3 to November 1 for naked oats. Thus, the sowing days of the barley types varied depending on the area and year they were used. For example, in the case of hulled barley in Jeonnam, some farmers sowed until December 12. The yield per 10 a of barley cultivation was typically higher in the main production areas than in the cultivation limit areas. In extreme cases, harvest was impossible in some cultivation limited areas, such as Gangwon-do. Based on the current 20-year January minimum average temperature (JMAT) in Korea (2002–2021), climate change scenarios suggest that barley cultivation is feasible, provided that the minimum temperature in January is no lower than -10°C, -8°C, and -4°C for hulled barley, dehulled barley, and for malting barley and naked oats, respectively. Additionally, cultivation of barley across South Korea seems feasible based on data on certified barley seeds by area. Although both JMAT and certified seed data suggest that barley cultivation across Korea is feasible, our survey results of barley growth and yield showed that harvest was impossible in certain cultivation areas, such as Gangwon-do. Therefore, climate change scenarios related to the cultivation limits of different barley types need to be re-estimated by factoring in survey data on the growth and yield of crops within those cultivation areas. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Effects of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Agronomic Traits on Bread Wheat Quality Parameters

    밀의 고분자 글루테닌 조성과 농업 형질이 품질 특성에 미치는 영향

    Jin-Kyung Cha, Dongjin Shin, Hyeonjin Park, Youngho Kwon, So-Myeong Lee, Jong-Min Ko, Jong-Hee Lee

    차진경, 신동진, 박현진, 권영호, 이소명, 고종민, 이종희

    Improving flour quality is one of the major targets of wheat breeding programs. This study determined the optimum high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) … + READ MORE
    Improving flour quality is one of the major targets of wheat breeding programs. This study determined the optimum high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to improve flour quality, and analyzed the correlation between agronomic and quality traits in Korea. A total of 180 wheat varieties, including 55 Korean and 125 foreign cultivars, carrying various Glu-1 alleles, were evaluated for their quality and agronomic traits. Results indicated that Glu-A1b, Glu-B1b, and Glu-D1f were the most prevailing alleles for each Glu-1 locus for Korean wheat cultivars. Korean wheat cultivars recorded shorter days to heading (DTH) and longer days to maturity (DTM) compared to foreign cultivars. In addition, an interaction effect was found between Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 alleles on several quality parameters. The combination of Glu-A1c and Glu-B1i showed a higher protein content, dry gluten content, and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation value than other Glu-A1×Glu-B1 combinations. Cultivars carrying Glu-A1a or Glu-A1b, Glu-B1i or Glu-B1al, and Glu-D1d for each Glu-1 locus exhibited a longer mixing time and stronger mixing tolerance. The DTM positively correlated with the protein content, gluten index and SDS sedimentation value. However, a negative correlation was observed between DTH and quality traits. Owing to the above results, this study suggests that an increase in the frequency of Glu-B1i or Glu-B1al, Glu-D1d coupled with a short DTH and long DTM could significantly improve wheat quality properties. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Effect of Irrigation and Fertigation Treatments on Growth and Yield in Spring Potato Cultivation

    봄 감자 재배 시 관수 및 관비 처리가 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향

    Jong Hyuk Kim, Il Rae Rho

    김종혁, 노일래

    This study was conducted to determine the suitable amount of irrigation and fertigation for the growth and yield of spring potatoes ( … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the suitable amount of irrigation and fertigation for the growth and yield of spring potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). To investigate the effect of soil moisture content on the growth and yield of potato, five irrigation treatments were performed based on soil moisture tension: –10 kPa, –20 kPa, –30 kPa, –40 kPa, and non-irrigation. The growth and yield among the irrigation treatments was the best in the –10 kPa treatment, where the yield increased by 47% compared to the non-irrigation treatment. To determine the standard of additional fertilizer for fertigation cultivation of spring potatoes, seven treatments were performed, including a control (basic fertilization without additional fertilizer), compound fertilizer (NPK) based on 0.5 times the standard amount of fertilizer (NPK 0.5; N-P2O5-K2O: 2.5-2.2-3.25 kg/10a), NPK 0.8 (N-P2O5-K2O: 4-3.5-5 kg/10a), and NPK 1.2 (N-P2O5-K2O: 6-5.3-7.8 kg/10a), and potassium fertilizer of 2 kg (K 2), 5 kg (K 5), and 7 kg (K 7). The growth and yield among the fertilization treatments was highest in the K 5 treatment, where the yield increased by approximately 27% compared to the control. Therefore, this study suggests that irrigation with –10 kPa or fertigation with K 5 during the tuber initiation and tuber filling stage could increase the yield of spring potatoes. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022
  • Original Research Article

    Effect of Crop Desiccant Treatment of Italian Ryegrass Seed Production on Harvest

    작물 건조제 처리가 이탈리안라이그라스 수확기 생육, 수량 및 안전성에 미치는 영향

    Yun-Ho Lee, Hyeon-Soo Jang, Dea-Uk Kim, Jong-Tak Youn

    이윤호, 장현수, 김대욱, 윤종탁

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxic of crop desiccant treatments on the seed production of Italian ryegrass ( … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxic of crop desiccant treatments on the seed production of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Gimje and Buan, South Korea. Here, Italian ryegrass was treated 7, 10, and 14 days before harvest (DBH) and no difference in fresh weight, 1000-seed weight, germination rate, and seed yield was observed compared to the untreated control in the standard dose and double dose for seven DBH. However, the standard dose and double dose on the 10 DBH and 14 DBH had a lower 1000-seed weight, germination rate, and seed yield compared to the untreated control. In pesticide persistence analysis, the permitted standards were not exceeded in the seeds and straw according to the treatment time and concentration. These results suggest that the treatment effect and stability of Italian ryegrass can be expected if treated within seven DBH. However, it seems that crop desiccants should be used after considering grain ripening and weather to minimize loss of seeds. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2022