• Research Article

    Effects of Temperature on Grain Filling Properties of Rice Flour Varieties during the Ripening Stage

    등숙기 온도에 따른 쌀가루 가공용 벼의 등숙특성 변이 구명

    Yang, SeoYeong1, Hwang, WoonHa1, Jeong, JaeHyeok1, Lee, HyeonSeok1, Lee, ChungGeun2 and Choi, MyoungGoo3*

    양서영, 황운하, 정재혁, 이현석, 이충근, 최명구

    The processing of rice is one of the measures to expand the scope of rice use in response to the decrease in ... + READ MORE
    The processing of rice is one of the measures to expand the scope of rice use in response to the decrease in rice consumption. Since the main ingredient of rice processing is rice flour, “rice flour varieties” have been bred with the aim to improve the productivity and quality of rice flour. In order to study the variation in the ripening characteristics of rice flour varieties with respect to temperature, the average temperature after heading date was set at 28°C (33/23°C), 22°C (27/17°C), and 18°C (23/13°C) inside the phytotron. We used Saenuri as non-glutinous rice variety, Seolgaeng as soft-type rice flour variety, and Baromi2 as powdered rice flour variety. At high temperatures (28°C), the grain weight of Baromi2 decreased by 21%. Its starch content also decreased by more than 10%, which was significantly lower than that of Saenuri and Seolgaeng. At low temperatures (18°C), the grain weight and starch content slightly increased or were similar in all varieties. An analysis of changes in the grain weight due to effective accumulated temperature through the sigmoid function showed that the velocity of grain-filling slowed significantly when Baromi2 was exposed to low temperature during the ripening stage compared to the other varieties. Therefore, the transplanting time of Baromi2 should be delayed to avoid high temperatures during the ripening stage. However, because the ripening period is not properly secured under low temperature conditions, grain filling may not be sufficient. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    QTL Analysis of Germination Rate and Germination Coefficient of Velocity under Low Temperature in Rice

    저온에서 벼의 발아율 및 발아속도 관련 양적형질 유전자좌(QTL) 분석

    Jinhee Kim, Youngjun Mo, Su-Kyung Ha, Ji-Ung Jeung, and Jong-Min Jeong

    김진희, 모영준, 하수경, 정지웅, 정종민

    As rice originates from tropical regions, low temperature stress during the germination stage in temperate regions leads to serious problems inhibiting germination ... + READ MORE
    As rice originates from tropical regions, low temperature stress during the germination stage in temperate regions leads to serious problems inhibiting germination and seedling establishment. Identifying and characterizing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for low-temperature germination (LTG) resistance help accelerate the development of rice cultivars with LTG tolerance. In this study, we identified QTLs for LTG tolerance (qLTG5, qLTG9) and germination coefficient of velocity under optimal conditions (OGCV) (qOGCV7, qOGCV9) using 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between a low-temperature sensitive line Milyang23 and a low-temperature tolerant variety Gihobyeo. qLTG9 and qOGCV9 were detected at the same location on chromosome 9. At both LTG QTLs (qLTG5 and qLTG9), the alleles for LTG tolerance were contributed by the japonica variety Gihobyeo. At qOGCV7 and qOGCV9, the alleles for low temperature tolerance were derived from Milyang23 and Gihobyeo, respectively. The RILs with desirable alleles at two or more QTLs, i.e., GroupVII: qLTG5+qLTG9 (qOGCV9) and GroupVIII: qLTG5+qOGCV7+qLTG9 (qOGCV9), showed stable tolerance under low-temperature stress. Our results are expected to contribute to the improvement of tolerance to low-temperature and anaerobic stress in japonica rice, which would lead to the wide adoption of direct-seeding practices. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Compatibility of Double Cropping of Winter Wheat - Summer Grain Crops in Paddy Field of Southern Korea

    남부지역 논의 밀 이모작에서 하계 곡실작물 도입의 적합성

    서종호 ・ 황정동 ・ 오성환

    Jong-Ho Seo, Chung-Dong Hwang, and Seong-Hwan Oh

    The growth period and productivity of cropping system of winter wheat-rice, winter wheat-bean and winter wheat-grain corn for 4 years from 2015 ... + READ MORE
    The growth period and productivity of cropping system of winter wheat-rice, winter wheat-bean and winter wheat-grain corn for 4 years from 2015 to 2018 were compared at the experimental field of National Institute of Crop Science in Miryang city. The harvest period of winter wheat was in mid-June, and summer crops were sown (transplanted) in late June. In transplanting of rice in late June, there was no difficulty in securing the heading of panicle and the yield of rice, but there was a lot of trouble in sowing wheat in proper time because the harvest time of rice was delayed to early November due to late maturity of rice, particularly in the mid-late maturing cultivar. There was no problem in soybean planting after winter wheat because the proper period of soybean planting is late-June. In addition, there was no problem in winter wheat sowng after soybean because the maturity period of soybean was mid-October. Selection of grain maize in double cropping with winter wheat in terms of growing periods, was desirable because grain maize had the fastest maturity among summer crops. In double cropping of winter wheat-summer crops, wheats combined with soybean and grain maize showed stable yields during three years, but there was a risk of yield declines in the wheat combined with rice in heavy rainfall year. It was possible to secure high yields in three summer crops as yields of rice, soybean, and corn were 600, 350, and 800 kg/10a, respectively. Summer crops with medium maturity was recommended because of no significant difference in yield between medium maturity and medium-late maturity cultivar. Soil physical properties were improved in soils cultivated with soybean and grain maize. Therefore, It was thought that double cropping systems of winter wheat with soybean and grain maize were superior to that of winter wheat with rice in terms of connecting period between winter wheat - summer crops and improvement of soil physical properties, and total income, particularly in soybean. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Protein and Arabinoxylan Contents of Whole Grains from Wheat Genetic Resources Cultivated in Korea

    국내에서 재배된 밀 유전자원의 통밀에서 단백질 및 아라비노자일란 함량 분석

    Jinwoo Yang, Jinhee Park, Jae-Han Son, Kyeong-Hoon Kim, Kyeong-Min Kim, Han-Yong Jeong, Chon-Sick Kang, Ji-Young Son, Tae-Il Park, and Changhyun Choi

    양진우 ・ 박진희 ・ 손재한 ・ 김경훈 ・ 김경민 ・ 정한용 ・ 강천식 ・ 손지영 ・ 박태일 ・ 최창현

    Recently, phytochemicals in whole grains have received increasing attention because the increased consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been ... + READ MORE
    Recently, phytochemicals in whole grains have received increasing attention because the increased consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases. Among the phytochemicals in whole wheat, arabinoxylan influences various physiological activities and can aid the treatment of numerous health conditions, either directly or indirectly. In this study, 614 wheat germplasms, collected from the world, were cultivated in 2018 and harvested in 2019 in South Korea. The qualities of these whole grains, including seed protein content, were evaluated using the NIR spectrophotometric method, and arabinoxylan content was determined using enzymatic methods. The ash content was 0.36 to 2.80% and protein content was 7.66 to 20. The SDS-sedimentation for gluten complex ability ranged from 26.85 to 80.63 mL, and protein content showed a high correlation with SDS-sedimentation in the germplasms. Verify the result of the enzymatic method of arabinoxylan, the reliability of the experimental method was determined through repeatability, reproducibility, and recovery. The average value of the 614 resources was 51.64 mg/g of whole grain, and when classified according to the country of origin, the South Korean origin resources tended to have a higher content compared to the genetic resources of other countries. These results are expected to be used as basic data for setting standards for whole grain quality in wheat breeding systems. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Response of Two Lines of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to Cold Stress

    유채 두 계통에서 저온 스트레스에 반응하는 전사체 발현 비교 분석

    Ji-Eun Lee, Kwang-Soo Kim, Young-Lok Cha, Da-Hee An, Jong-Won Byun, and Yong-Ku Kang

    이지은 ・ 김광수 ・ 차영록 ・ 안다희 ・ 변종원 ・ 강용구

    Rapeseed is a typical winter crop, and its freezing stress tolerance is a major feature for winter survival. Therefore, it is important ... + READ MORE
    Rapeseed is a typical winter crop, and its freezing stress tolerance is a major feature for winter survival. Therefore, it is important to comprehend clearly the physical and molecular mechanisms of rapeseed under freezing stress conditions. This study investigates the physical and transcriptome changes of two rapeseed lines, ‘J8634-B-30’ and ‘EMS26’, under cold acclimation and freezing temperature treatments. The proline content of ‘J8634-B-30’ at 5 °C increased 8.7-fold compared to that before treatment, and there was no significant change in that of ‘EMS26’ RNA-sequencing analysis revealed 5,083 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of ‘J8634-B-30’ under cold acclimation condition. Among the genes, 2,784 (54.8%) were up-regulated and 2,299 (45.2%) were down-regulated. The DEGs of ‘EMS26’ under cold acclimation condition were 5,831 genes, and contained 2,199 up-regulated genes (37.7%) and 3,632 down-regulated genes (62.3%). Among them, only DEGs annotated in the cold response-related signaling pathways were selected, and their expression in the two rapeseed lines was compared. Comparative DEGs analysis indicated that cold response related signaling pathways are proline metabolism and ABA (Abscisic acid) signaling. And ICE (Inducer of CBF expression) - CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) - COR (Cold-regulated) signaling were the significantly differentially expressed transcripts in the two rapeseed lines. The major induced transcripts of ‘J8634-B-30’ induced P5CS (Δ‘-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase), which is related to proline biosynthesis, PYL (pyrabactin resistance-like protein, ABA receptor) and COR413 (cold-regulated 413 plasma membrane 1). In conclusion, these result provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of freezing stress tolerance in rapeseeds. Further functional studies should be performed on the freezing stress-related genes identified in this study, which can contribute to the transgenic and molecular breeding for freezing stress tolerance in rapeseed. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Evaluation on the Effects of Deicing Salts on Crop using Seedling Emergence Assay of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    유채의 출아 검정을 통한 제설제의 작물 영향 평가

    Soo-Hyun Lim, Hyejin Yu, Chan-Young Lee, Yu-Seok Gong, Byung-Duk Lee, and Do-Soon Kim

    임수현 ・ 유혜진 ・ 이찬영 ・ 공유석 ・ 이병덕 ・ 김도순

    The increasing use of deicing salts has caused various environmental problems, including crop damage along the motorway where deicing salts are sprayed ... + READ MORE
    The increasing use of deicing salts has caused various environmental problems, including crop damage along the motorway where deicing salts are sprayed during winter. Deicing salts used on roads have been reported to negatively affect crops, but little information is known about their impact on crops. A seedling emergence assay was conducted to evaluate the effects of deicing salts on crops using oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as a model plant. We tested five chloride deicing salts consisting of NaCl, CaCl2, or MgCl2 and 1 non-chloride deicing salt (SM-3) at a range of concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mM), and untreated control. Regardless of deicing salts, they significantly delayed and reduced seedling emergence of oilseed rape with increasing salt concentration. Non-linear regression analysis of seedling emergence with a range of salt concentrations by fitting to the log-logistic model revealed that the chloride deicing salts reduced seedling emergence more than the non-chloride deicing salt SM-3. The GR50 value, the concentration causing 50% seedling emergence, of SM-3 was 47.1 mM, while those of the chloride deicing salts ranged from 30.7 mM (PC-10) to 37.5 mM (ES-1), showing approximately 10 mM difference between non-chloride and chloride deicing salts. Our findings suggest that seedling emergence assay is a useful tool to estimate the potential damage caused by deicing salts on crops. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Changes in Growth and Productivity Characteristics by Sowing Date on Spring Sowing Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in Paddy Field of Southern Region of South Korea

    남부지역 유채(Brassica napus L.) 논재배 봄파종 시 파종시기에 따른 생육 및 수량 특성 변화

    Da-Eun Kwon, Kwang-Soo Kim, Eom-Ji Hwang, Jin-Cheon Park, Ji-Eun Lee, and Yeong-Hoon Lee

    권다은 ・ 김광수 ・ 황엄지 ・ 박진천 ・ 이지은 ・ 이영훈

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal sowing date for the spring sowing cultivation of rapeseed (Brassica napus L ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal sowing date for the spring sowing cultivation of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To determine suitable rapeseed sowing dates for spring sowing cultivation, changes in growth, flowering characteristics, and seed production were investigated in Muan, South Korea between 2019 and 2020. ‘Jungmo7001’ is the suitable variety for spring sowing because of its early flowering characteristics, high seed yield, and the fact that it occupies the highest cultivation area in South Korea. When the yield of ‘Jungmo7001’ was investigated in 2019 and 2020, the highest yields recorded were 243 kg/10a in February 28, 2019, and 294 kg/10a in February 18, 2020. As a result, the optimal rapeseed seeding period is considered to be mid-to-late February in the southern region. There was no statistically significant difference in seed crude oil content. The content of oleic acid (C18:1) decreased, but that of linoleic acid (C18:2) and of linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly depending on the sowing date. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Irrigation of River Water and Swine Slurry Liquid Fertilizer on Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Growth Cultivated Using Soil Moisture Control System in Reclaimed Land

    자동 수분 제어시스템을 이용한 간척지 케나프 재배시 하천수 및 액비 관개 효과

    Chan-Ho Kang, In-Sok Lee, Jin-Jae Lee, and Hee-Jun Kim

    강찬호 ・ 이인석 ・ 이진재 ・ 김희준

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) remote soil moisture control system including soil sensing, automatic water supply chain, and remote alarming system was ... + READ MORE
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) remote soil moisture control system including soil sensing, automatic water supply chain, and remote alarming system was established on reclaimed land and operated stably. The system was operated using river water around the reclaimed land without fertilizer. On applying this system to control soil moisture, the kenaf germination rate was improved up to two times. Kenaf biomass was 4,748 kg/10a and was higher than that of untreated soil moisture management. When the nutritious liquid fertilizer was used, kenaf yield reached 8,390 kg/10a, which was lower than 10,848 kg/10a of the non-reclaimed land treated with standard chemical fertilizers. As the soil moisture was managed stably through the ICT remote soil moisture control system, the quality of the kenaf crop was improved, resulting in a 7% increase in dry weight, and a 11.5% increase in plant hardness. The estimated kenaf yield was 5,039 kg/10a when 800 tonnes of water were supplied by the ICT remote soil moisture control system with the stream water around Saemangeum reclaimed land without chemical fertilizers and organic matter. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021
  • Research Article

    Effect of Different Liquid Manure Anaerobic Digestates on the Growth and Yield of Rice and the Optimum Application Concentration

    혐기소화발효액비의 벼 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향과 적정 시용량

    Ji-Eun Byeon, Hong-Ju Lee, Jong-Won Ryoo, and Sun-Goo Hwang

    변지은 ・ 이홍주 ・ 류종원 ・ 황선구

    This research examined the effects of different liquid manure based anaerobic digestate on the growth and yield of rice compared to chemical ... + READ MORE
    This research examined the effects of different liquid manure based anaerobic digestate on the growth and yield of rice compared to chemical fertilizer. The liquid manure was produced by aerobic fermentation from swine with cow or apple pomace anaerobic digestate and treated at different concentrations. The number of grains per panicle increased in both the liquid manure-treated and chemical fertilizer treated rice. The yield index did not vary significantly between the liquid manure and chemical fertilizer. An increased concentration of liquid manure did not correlate with increases in unhulled rice. However, pH and exchangeable K in the soil increased with an increase in liquid manure. In summary, we suggest a properly applied 100% liquid manure fertilizer can replace chemical fertilizer to reduce our excessive use of inorganic fertilizer. - COLLAPSE
    March 2021